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How your Dog Learns

Teaching your new dog or puppy is all about providing ‘feedback’ to their actions.

If the feedback or consequence is positive, your puppy will tend to repeat the behavior.  If the feedback is negative, the behavior should diminish.   Praise, affection and attention (even sometimes negative attention) are all ways to provide positive feedback.   Withdrawing attention is an excellent way to provide negative feedback.   Negative feedback need never involve any kind of physical punishment.

For your puppy to learn, this feedback must be Immediate, Consistent and Repetitive.

Immediate feedback is essential because dogs truly live in the moment.   Your dog will associate your feedback with whatever happened immediately prior to that feedback.   For example if you are teaching your puppy his name, its important to praise him the moment he responds by looking at you.   If you’re late with your praise, you may end up praising him looking away.   Likewise with negative feedback, if your puppy has an accident in the house, telling him NO minutes later will teach him nothing.  He will have no idea why you’re upset.   Catching him in the act at that moment, interrupting him and getting him outside is what will teach him the right place to ‘go’.

Consistency is equally important.  Dogs have a ‘slot machine’ mentality.  This means that even if they only occasionally get rewarded for certain behavior, they will continue to repeat it.   Jumping is a good example of this.   Any attention given when an adorable puppy jumps up on you is reinforcing that behavior.   So if sometimes you smile and pet your puppy (and who can resist doing this?), and sometimes you turn away, your puppy will continue to jump.

You may have Repeat this feedback multiple times before your puppy or dog ‘gets it’. So its important to be patient and know this is part of teaching your puppy.    You make the rules for your dog’s behavior.   Its not so much good or bad but desirable or undesirable – what do you want to live with?   Dog on the couch?  Its up to you.  But be consistent with your feedback!!   You’ll only confuse your puppy with inconsistent feedback.

One more important note – the feedback or consequence does not always come from us.  There are ‘self’ rewarding behaviors that we must manage.  Whenever your puppy pees, he feels better because his full bladder is relieved – just like us.  If your puppy pees in the house and you’re not right there to provide feedback, your puppy thinks, ‘I feel better now, I guess I can do this again, in this spot’.    Your job is to making peeing outside more rewarding than peeing inside AND preventing the accidents inside because each time that happens, your puppy is being inadvertently rewarded for that behavior.

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Help for ‘Hand Shy’ Dogs

Accept Reaching Hands and Touching

This exercise will help hand shy dogs become more comfortable with being touched. It is important to begin practicing with familiar and accepted adults first. Again, keep in mind that your objective is not for the dog to merely tolerate, but rather to remain relaxed and enjoy the process, and that an inexperienced helper can get bitten if you proceed too quickly without making sure that the dog is truly accepting rather than merely tolerating the touching.
Goal 1: Relaxed Dog will accept face touch from owner and/or helper.
1. Reach toward dog, stop 6 in. from side of dog’s face, treat from other hand.
2. Repeat reach toward dog, stopping 3 inches from face, treat from other hand.
3. Repeat reach, stopping 2 inches from face, then repeat stopping 1 inch from face.
4. Lightly touch the side of dog’s face.
5. Repeat toward chin.

GO SLOWLY THROUGH THESE STEPS – ONLY MOVE ON TO CLOSER OR FASTER TOUCHING WHEN DOG IS HAPPY AND RELAXED.
SAY ‘GOTCHA’ AS YOU REACH TOWARD DOG TO MAKE IT FUN

Goal 2: Relaxed dog will accept collar and body touch from owner and/or helper.
1. As you feed the treat with one hand, touch the dog’s head with the other.
2. As you feed the treat with one hand, touch the dog under the ear and on the ear.
3. As you feed the treat with one hand, touch the side of the dog’s neck.
4. As you feed the dog with one hand, touch the collar.
5. As you feed with one hand, touch the dog’s chest, front legs, back, lower back, belly, down the back legs, the tail, and finally the paws.
6. Progress to touching from different positions and at different speeds.

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Playing with Your Puppy

Playing regularly with your puppy will help you form a strong bond. The purpose of play is to develop skills that will be useful throughout their lives, such as impulse control. The more games you play with your puppy, the more he will consider you to be the most interesting thing in his world. Encouraging puppies to play with toys provides a good outlet for their physical and mental energies.

You puppy should have two sets of toys: toys that he can play with by himself and ‘interactive toys’ that he can only play with you. Keep the interactive toys put away so you initiate play and keep you and the toys interesting to your puppy.

Developing interest in the toy
Rather than just offer your puppy a new toy, take it out, play with it yourself, or play catch with another family member and act like you are having fun. Then put the toy away. Repeat this until your puppy is chomping at the bit to join in the play. Keep toy moving/wiggling along the ground. Then select your special toys that you will put away after every play session.

Enthusiasm first, control later
Build enthusiasm for play first, then put in controls like sit and wait later. Keep the games fun!!

Types of Games
Fetch – often preferred by herding dogs, retrievers and hounds
Tug – often preferred by guard dogs and bull breeds
Shake and Kill- often preferred by terriers

Rules of the Games
Invite your puppy to play with you often
With Tug of War, win more often than you lose
Do not play too roughly
Teach him to “Drop It” on command – stop tugging and trade for treat
Stop before your puppy gets bored – play several short sessions per day
Stop playing immediately if you feel any teeth to skin
Stop playing if your puppy begins to growl or gets over-excited
Always put the toy away after the game

Teaching impulse control
Teaching your puppy control during games will help your adult dog maintain control, even in times of stress or excitement. After your puppy has developed great enthusiasm for the games, practice sits/waits, downs/waits and recalls before and during play.

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The Sit Savant

 

Most of us take the sit command for granted. After all, it was probably the first command we taught our dog – and it was so easy! But does your dog really know the sit command? Or does he think it means just touch his butt on the ground, pop right up and get a treat?

A really good sit can help with all sorts of control issues such as:
– Easily distracted dogs
– Door dashers
– Overly exuberant greetings
– Dogs who jump up on people
– Leash pullers
– Leash and other forms of aggression

Work on teaching your dog to sit until they are released. Just as if it were a stay, or a wait. Sit until given the release word. And to sit no matter what is going on.

For our purposes, you may want to use two different commands:
SIT – means facing you
CLOSE – Means in heel position at your left side. This position allows you to have more control over your dog in difficult situations.

The goal is to “proof” the dog using the following:

Duration – how long the dog has to sit

Distance – how far away you are from the dog

Distractions – level of distraction while in the sit

Different locations – work in one place first – then change

Examples:
Practice sits with your back turned to the dog, a bag on you head, around a corner, you get the picture. Sit won’t work in the vet office if you haven’t worked through distractions or a different picture than you in the kitchen with a treat! Practice sits when your dog is very excited, so she ‘sits on a dime’ (like stopping on a dime).

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Tips for Nice Leash Walking

Make walking by your side a positive experience.

Screaming “heel” or “no pull” at your dog does not work and is certainly not fun. Instead, randomly reward your dog with a yummie treat when he’s by your side as you reinforce his behavior with the word “close.” Don’t use the phrase “good dog” — because your dog has no idea what he did that was good, so how can he repeat it? Instead, acknowledge the behavior by naming and rewarding it. Once your dog is consistently walking close to you, you can begin to give him “jackpots” — where you randomly reward him with a quick series of 5-6-7 treats, one after the other. He can always have “dinner on the go,” with you feeding him his treats along the way for walking correctly. You can also bring his favorite toy along and walk to the dog park: His reward for walking correctly, once you arrive, is that he gets to play with it and you!

Eliminate choke chains.

I believe devices that cause a dog pain, such as choke chains and prong collars do not belong in dog training. Using painful tactics only teaches a dog to be fearful of our causing her pain rather than strengthening our relationship. There are better and more effective ways to communicate with her. We want our dog to want to be with us by our side — because we give her clear boundaries as well as constant praise and reward for the desired behavior. Instead, use a flat collar and follow my method to ensure a stress and pain-free way to teach your dog to walk with you, all the while creating a deeper bond between you. Using a No Pull Harness or Gentle Leader can help a strong puller and make your training easier.

Keep the same length of leash at all times.

To keep your dog from pulling on his leash, you must teach him that he only has a certain length of leash available and that you’re in control of it. It’s a mistake to use a retractable leash in the teaching phase, giving him a longer leash anytime he wants it. Save the retractable leash for the everyday phase of walking, once he has learned how to walk correctly by your side and not pull you down the street.  When you hold the leash with your hand, it’s easy for your dog to pull away by forcing you to extend your arm. It’s also important that both your hands are free, assisting you in planting your body when he’s pulling. So wear a sturdy belt, slip the loop end of the leash around it, and fasten it snugly around your waist.  As your dog walks correctly down the street with you, remember to repeat the word “walk,” reinforcing his behavior.

Hold your ground when your dog pulls on the leash.

When your dog begins to pull on her leash, stop, plant your feet, lower your center of gravity and hold your ground like a sumo wrestler. She must learn that the walk (what she wants) will only continue (her reward) if she is not pulling on her leash and on you. Call your dog back to your side before you starting walking again. Another method is to turn and go the other way each time your dog pulls ahead. If your dog is a serious puller, start walking by a railing or fence that you can grab onto as you stop.

Resume walking only after your dog stops pulling on the leash.

As soon as she backs up — even a little bit — creating some slack on the leash, resume the walk with the phrase “let’s walk.” The minute she starts to pull on the leash again, you must hold your ground as before, continuing only once she backs up and creates slack on the leash.

Constantly talk to and praise your dog along the way.

This is a great way to keep him in tune with you and your pace. Just like a child, if you don’t pay attention to your dog, the message you give him is that he’s on his own and can do whatever he pleases. And when you ignore your dog as he’s walking correctly, and only give him attention when he’s walking incorrectly, he’ll be more prone to continue the unwanted behavior just so you’ll notice him! So stay focused on your dog during the walk and make calls on your cell phone at another time. Most dogs respond very quickly to this method, and you will find that if you and everyone that walks your dog (don’t forget about the other family members and the dog walker) are consistent, you’ll soon look forward to the fun you’ll have on your walks together.

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Puppy Socialization Rule of 12’s

Socialization is one of the most important things to focus on with your new puppy.  Here is a list of things you can do.

Make sure all experiences are safe and positive for the puppy. Each encounter should include treats and lots of praise. Slow down and add distance if your puppy is scared.

By the time the puppy is 12 weeks old, it should have:
(or start right away if puppy is over 12 weeks)

Experienced 12 different surfaces: wood, woodchips, carpet, tile, cement, linoleum, grass, wet grass, dirt, mud, puddles, deep pea gravel, grates uneven surfaces, on a table, on a chair, etc.
Played with 12 different objects: fuzzy toys, big and small balls, hard toys, funny sounding toys, wooden items, paper or cardboard items, milk jugs, metal items, car keys, etc.
Experienced 12 different locations: front yard, other people’s homes, school yard, lake, pond, river, boat, basement, elevator, car, moving car, garage, laundry room, kennel, veterinarian hospital (just visit), grooming salon(just visit), etc.
Met and played with 12 new people (outside of family): children, adults, men, elderly, people in wheelchairs, walkers, people with canes, crutches, hats, sunglasses, beards, etc.
Exposed to 12 different noises (ALWAYS keep positive and watch puppy’s comfort level- we don’t want puppy scared): garage door opening, doorbell, children playing, babies screaming, big trucks, motorcycles, skateboards, washing machine, shopping carts rolling, power boat, clapping, loud singing, pan dropping, horses, vacuum, lawnmowers, etc.
Exposed to 12 fast moving objects (don’t allow to chase): skateboards, roller-skates, bicycles, motorcycles, cars, people running, cats running, scooters, vacuums, children running, soccer, squirrels, cats, etc.
Experienced 12 different challenges: climb on, in, off and around a box, go through a cardboard tunnel, climb up and down steps, climb over obstacles, play hide & seek, go in and out a doorway with a step up or down, exposed to an electric sliding door, umbrella, balloons, walk on a wobbly table, jump over a broom, climb over a log, bathtub, etc.
Handled by owner and family 12 times a week: hold under arm like football, hold to chest, hold on floor near owner, hold in between owners legs, hold head, look in ears, mouth, in between toes, hold and take temperature, hold like baby, trim toe nails, hold in lap, etc.
Eaten from 12 different shaped containers: wobbly bowl, metal, cardboard box, paper, coffee cup, china, pie plate, plastic, frying pan, Kong, Treatball, Bustercube, spoon fed, paper bag, etc.
Eaten in 12 different locations: back yard, front yard, crate, kitchen, basement, laundry room, bathroom, friend’s house, car, school yard, bathtub, up high, under umbrella, etc.
Played with 12 different puppies(or safe adult dogs)as much as possible.
Left alone safely, away from family and other animals (5-45 minutes) 12 times a week
Experienced a leash and collar 12 different times in 12 different locations.

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The Science of Using Food Rewards for Dog Training

Food rewards are an easy, fast and effective way to teach your puppy new behaviors and reinforce these behaviors in higher distracting situations.

Treats need to be pea-sized OR SMALLER and easy to get to (pocket, training pouch or nearby table top). They should be soft so your dog can chew quickly without leaving crumbs on the floor – plus soft treats are easier to break into small enough pieces

Distracting environments call for better treats. You can usually get away with something like Cheerios or kibble in the house with no distractions, but for outside leash walking practice, whip out the cubed cheddar or hot dogs.

When in working with distractions, or a particularly challenging situation, feed lots of treats in a continuous fashion – to help your dog be successful.

A mix of treats is ideal so your dog never knows what’s coming. Figure out what your dog really likes!

If you are having trouble with a particular behavior such as housetraining or coming when called – use your dog’s very favorite treats for these rewards and ONLY for rewarding these behaviors.

Once a behavior is learned, start rewarding randomly – start with ‘2-fers’ and gradually vary the intervals in which you reward, slowly decreasing over time but continue to reward occasionally – ‘slot machine effect’

Treat ideas:

Cubed lunch meat (to dry it out a bit, microwave it 3 times for 30 seconds sandwiched between pieces of paper towel)
Shredded or string cheese
Cream cheese, peanut butter, Easy cheese (a lick per behavior – also great for grooming practice and stuffing in Kong when your dog will be alone for awhile)
Cereal such as cheerios
Kibble (dry food) – try placing some in a paper bag with some bacon to ‘stinkify it’
Kitty treats or food
Freeze dried liver treats
Beef Jerky
Apple pieces
Cooked green beans, carrots, or peas
Hot dogs, Liverwurst
Popcorn
Imitation crab (try peeling layers apart and freezing them in a colander to dry them out)
Meat baby food
Hard boiled egg white pieces
Commercial dog treats (be sure to check ingredients to avoid preservatives, artificial colors and by-products)

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Puppy Biting and Nipping

Puppies explore with their mouths just like babies explore with their hands. Puppies have sharp teeth and weak jaws – so this is the time to teach them to bite gently – and then not at all – before they develop the strong jaws of an adolescent dog. It is important to teach your puppy to reduce both the force and frequency of his biting.

To do this, play with your puppy. Sit on the floor and purposely put your hands near your puppy’s mouth. If you feel a hard bite, say Ouch! And stop playing. If your puppy stops biting, lure him into a sit and reward and start playing again. If your puppy ignores the ‘ouch’, and continues to bite, say OOOWWW and leave the room. Come back after a 20 second time out and do a little sit/down training before starting to play again.

An excellent way to practice this is to tether your puppy in an area where he can’t have any fun except with you. Sit on the floor and play with your puppy and when you feel hard bite, say Ouch! Then get up and leave the area for 20 seconds. Repeat this 10 times in a row twice a day. You should be able to play longer and longer between hard bites. Then start reacting to the softer bites as well. If you have children, each person should practice this exercise separately, starting with the adults.

Another way to teach your puppy to have a ‘gentle mouth’ is to hand feed him. Your puppy only gets the food when being gentle – and not grabby. If your puppy likes to bite and grab pant legs, stop moving immediately and interrupt him. Call his name and then ask him to do something else such as Sit.

Be aware that when your puppy is excited, he’ll be more mouthy and bitey. So first practice when he’s calm. When he is calm, you can do a lot of gentle petting and give him a nice belly rub. If he bites, then all petting stops for 20 seconds. Another consequence to biting is 30 second time out in his crate. Don’t do this in anger – it’s just a neutral consequence to his biting – “Oops – time out – in your crate.”

If you don’t see an improvement in reduced biting, consult a Certified Professional Dog Trainer in your area.

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Teaching Your Dog to Say Please

In any home, whether it has dogs in it or not, good manners are appreciated. Things like pushing past your parents to rush outside or bugging them for candy while they were working were probably not allowed when you were young and they show that your relationship with your dog is not as strong as it could be. There’s no need to yell at your dog when he does things like bark or whine at you for attention or defend his dog food dish. What you need to do is teach your dog how to SAY PLEASE.

As with all of the training methods that we recommend, we want you to set your dog up for success. Tell the dog what you want her to do (in words that she knows or by reinforcing behaviors you like), and ignore the tricks you don’t want in your dog’s attention-grabbing toolbox. You get what you pay for with dogs. If it works for them, they’ll keep doing something, even if you don’t like it.
The Say Please Protocol is also called “Nothing In Life Is Free,” because you allow the dog to earn his keep. It’s a way of living with your dog that will help him behave better because he trusts and accepts your leadership and is confident knowing his place in the family.

How to teach your dog to Say Please

First, teach your dog some behaviors that he can do on cue. Use positive reinforcement methods to teach him some cues. At first, SIT is quite sufficient. This will be your dog’s default way of asking you for something. DOWN and STAY are also useful behaviors. “Bow,” “Speak,” “Sit Pretty”, and “Roll over” are fun tricks to teach your dog.

Once your dog has mastered one or more cues, you can begin to ask him to Say Please. Before you give your dog the things that it likes most in life, (food, a treat, a walk, a pat on the head) he must first respond to one of the cues he has learned. One way is to simply have your dog sit for everything, so that he his default method for getting what he wants is to sit. Soon, you won’t have to ask for it; you can just stand there waiting and he’ll offer a polite sit, to see if it works. You can ask him to do other cues as well, although the sit is your dog’s primary way to Say Please.

Once you’ve given the cue, don’t give Fido what he wants until he does what you want. If he barks at you or knowingly refuses to perform the behavior (unlikely – he probably just doesn’t understand), walk away, come back a few minutes later, and start again. Keep in mind that he may not actually know the cue in the context you are asking, and may need extra help at first. Or he may be so excited about the toy/treat/leash that he temporarily forgets everything he knows. “Extra help” includes a visual signal or even a lure. If you think the dog knows the cue and you end up using a lure, don’t feed the dog the treat that you used for the lure at that time (we don’t want to reward non-compliance!).

The Benefits of Teaching Your Dog to Say Please
The best benefit is that your dog practices the cues that you have taught in many situations, with many different kinds of rewards. Instead of having to do a long training session, you can practice behavior that the dog already knows throughout the day. Your dog no longer has to ask, “Why should I listen to my human?” because the rewards are things that he wants in his everyday life, not just food.

Some dogs display affectionate behavior that borders on being “pushy,” such as nudging your hand to be petted or worming their way onto the furniture to be close to you. Dogs don’t do these behaviors because they are mean or bad dogs. They do them because they work. Period. Requiring your dog to Say Please first shows your dog the polite way to get what it wants. If you simultaneously ignore the unwanted behaviors, they will disappear and be replaced with a nice sit.

Fearful dogs may become more confident by ‘obeying’ cues, because it allows the dog to understand some of the rules of the game. Making your dog or puppy Say Please before dashing off to do what she wants can help keep her out of harm’s way (in the car, at the door, et cetera). In a multiple-dog household, making each dog Say Please and releasing them by name can bring some peace and order to your life!

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General Training Tips

A good trainer is: Fast, Patient, Generous, Unpredictable and Variable.

In the beginning, you must reinforce a behavior IMMEDIATELY every single time you give the cue. This is called the “acquisition” stage of the behavior. As the behavior becomes more reliable, you can begin to delay the reinforcement (treat, ball, affection), or go to variable reinforcement (reinforcing every few times). You must stop being predictable! Here are some tips to make you be a better dog trainer.

  • Concentrate on and reinforce the things your dog is doing right. Try to ignore behavior you don’t want to see repeated. If you can’t ignore it, manage it.
  • Remember that the reinforcement (treat, ball, toy) you use has to be reinforcing to your dog! Kibble (dog food) usually isn’t enough, unless the dog is starving. Experiment with different levels of reinforcement – from regular treats up to pieces of leftover meat or cheese. Save your most potent reinforcement for the behaviors that are most difficult for your dog.
  • Placement of the reinforcement is extremely important. Where your treat goes, so goes your dog. Thus, if you want your dog to walk right beside you, make sure you deliver your treats next to your leg, at the dog’s head level. Try not to make the dog jump for a treat, unless you want the dog to do so – as in a trick.
  • Marking a successful behavior. As you teach each exercise, make sure your dog knows exactly what you want him to do. Do this by MARKING the precise moment the behavior occurs. We call this a bridge. So, in teaching a Down, the instant her entire body touches the ground, you say “YES!!!” and deliver a treat. As the behavior gets more reliable, stop saying “yes” every time she does it. However, each time you say “YES” a treat should be forthcoming.
  • Make it harder. When you began training your dog, you lured the dog into position. Once there you gave her a treat. Now we wish to prompt the behavior, mark the proper one, and reward intermittently from an unknown place.

    As an example, if you were trying to get your dog to lie down, you would begin by luring, then rewarding the behavior. By now, when you say “Down”, she lies down – but she does it much better when she sees the treat in your hand. So we have to teach her the ZEN of TREATS – in order to get the treat, she must give up the treat. Hold your treat in the hand that is not doing the signal. Show the dog your hand without the treat. Tell or signal the dog to Down, and wait for the dog to do so. Wait until she does. Don’t go back to the lure yet. When she does lie down, give her a wonderful treat from the other hand. You are teaching the dog that the treats she can’t see are even more potent than the ones she can. And it’s teaching her she doesn’t have to see the treat to do the exercise. (If she doesn’t down, she may not understand; go back to the beginning, and review until you get a good down with a lure).

    Do that for awhile. Then, delay the treat for a tad, and when you do deliver it, do so from a desk or counter. Then give it for two downs (twofer), then three, then four. But never go to no rewards. Try to vary your reward as well; different kinds of treats, a tug toy, or ball playing after a short session.

  • Never take a behavior completely for granted. That leads to the Straight A Student Syndrome. If no one pays attention to you when you’re being good….you’ll be bad! F students get a great deal of attention when they make a C, and they learn that creating havoc leads to more attention. Pay attention to the correct behavior!
  • Targeting. If you want your dog to follow your hand cues, one of the ways to accomplish that is by the use of a Target. This technique also fades the use of the treat quickly. You teach your dog to watch your hand forinstructions. Begin by showing him your palm. Put your other hand behind the back of your first hand with a treat in it, and stick them both in front of his nose. Most dogs are curious; when he touches your palm, say “YES!” and give him the treat. Do that 20 times. The 21st time, put your treat hand behind your back. When and only when he touches your Target hand, say “YES!” and give him the treat. Do that many, many times. Now move the treat someplace else, and do it again. Now have the dog follow your hand, and when he touches say “YES!” (the yes is a MARKER word that means “you got it!”) Now say “Touch” or “Target” when he touches your palm. When he’s got that, stop giving him a treat when he touches your palm with no signal. When he’s got that, make him do two touches for one treat…then three then four, etc., but never stop giving rewards completely.

Crime and Punishment

A word about the use of punishment. Punishment ONLY WORKS if it’s appropriate, delivered at the instant the erroneous behavior occurs, and is identifiable with that behavior. It is very difficult to appropriately punish a dog, since you CANNOT EXPLAIN TO THE DOG WHAT HE DID WRONG.

Most people punish at the wrong time. For instance, if you were going to punish the dog for not sitting, you must do so as the dog is getting up. Not after he has done so. Not after he is walking away. Not after he sneezes, or scratches. If you wait, he will identify the punishment with the sneeze, scratch or walking, and it will not be effective.

At its best, punishment focuses on what the dog did wrong, and doesn’t tell him what to do. This is why it is much more effective to just give a Negative marker (wrong, or uh-uh, or OOPS or Too Bad) and go back to the behavior, preparing to reinforce correct behavior.

In the home, punishment is virtually always counter-productive, since the timing is almost always way off, and the dog identifies the punishment with the punisher — you. She will begin to cower or act submissive whenever a certain set of criteria are met. For instance, you walk in the door after being gone for a long time and look around. Sometimes you then begin yelling, sometimes you don’t. What follows is very predictable — the dog goes into a submissive posture (“that guilty look”), just in case. She also may begin refusing to come when called (would you come to an unpredictable punisher?), or she will crawl, and sometimes submissively urinate. Not effective.

Punishment is also ineffective because it teaches animals to suppress milder warning signals (growling, raising of hackles). Aggression always occurs after a series of warning signals.

Go for positive reinforcement. It works better, and produces a happy, obedient dog.

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